A Cautionary Tale in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Perils and Pitfalls of Observational Data Analysis Mar 05, 2018 By Adam LeiveArmando FrancoDana GoldmanDaniel McFadden A Cautionary Tale in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Perils and Pitfalls of Observational Data Analysis Health care costs represent a nearly 18% of U.S. gross domestic product and 20% of government spending. While there is detailed information on where these health care dollars are spent, there is much less evidence on how this spending affects health. The research in Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs seeks to connect our knowledge of expenditures with what we are able to measure of results, probing questions of methodology, changes in the pharmaceutical industry, and the shifting landscape of physician practice. NBER Book Series Studies in Income and Wealth. University of Chicago Press. NBER Book Series Studies in Income and Wealth. University of Chicago Press. Areas of focus Economics Health Policy Adam Leive Adam Leive is an assistant professor of public policy and economics at the Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy and in the Department of Economics (by courtesy) at the University of Virginia. He is a health economist with research interests at the intersection of consumer decision-making, household finance, and public economics. Read full bio Armando Franco Dana Goldman Daniel McFadden Related Content Adam Leive Health Insurance Design Meets Saving Incentives: Consumer Responses to Complex Contracts Research To lower health care costs, Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) offer tax incentives encouraging people to trade off current consumption against future consumption. This paper tests whether consumers use HSAs as self-insurance over the life cycle. Has Mortality Risen Disproportionately for the Least Educated? Research Two Batten professors examine whether the least educated population groups experienced the worst mortality trends at the beginning of the 21st century by measuring changes in mortality across education quartiles. Armed with Humor, Batten Student Named Among Nation's Top Four Army ROTC Cadets News The Navy Federal Credit Union has selected Batten student Jacob Shapero (MPP '21) as one of four Army ROTC All-Americans nationwide. Q&A: Do Work Requirements Aid Those on Public Assistance? Batten Professor Says No. News Adam Leive, Assistant Professor of Public Policy and Economics at the Batten School, questions the effectiveness of work requirements in public assistance.