Nonprofileration Policy Crossroads Nov 05, 2012 By Gerald Warburg Nonprofileration Policy Crossroads Nonprofileration Policy Crossroads On October 1, 2008, Congress enacted a proposal that originated with President George W. Bush in 2005 to approve an unprecedented nuclear trade pact with India by removing a central pillar of US nonproliferation policy. Despite the numerous political challenges confronting the Bush administration, the initiative won strong bipartisan support, including votes from Democratic Senators Joseph Biden, Hillary Clinton, and Barack Obama. The four-year struggle to pass the controversial US-India nuclear trade agreement offers an exceptionally valuable case study. It demonstrates a classic tradeoff between the pursuit of broad multilateral goals such as nuclear nonproliferation and advancement of a specific bilateral relationship. It reveals enduring fault lines in executive branch relations with Congress. It vividly portrays challenges confronting proponents of a strong nonproliferation regime. This article is based on an analysis of the negotiating record and congressional deliberations, including interviews with key participants. It assesses the lessons learned and focuses on three principal questions: how did the agreement seek to advance US national security interests?; what were the essential elements of the prolonged state-of-the-art lobbying campaign to win approval from skeptics in Congress?; and what are the agreement’s actual benefits - and costs - to future US nonproliferation efforts? The Nonproliferation Review Areas of focus National Security Gerald Warburg Warburg teaches courses at the Batten School on Congress, U.S. foreign policy and advocacy strategies. He is the lead faculty member in the Batten School massive open online course (MOOC) “Public Policy Challenges of the 21st Century,” which is available on Coursera. Read full bio Related Content Gerald Warburg Dispatches from the Eastern Front: A Political Education from the Nixon Years to the Age of Obama Research A naïve undergraduate is transported from a small California town to the intensely competitive world of Capitol Hill policymaking. Gerald Felix Warburg’s memoir is not just a story about four decades in Washington, although a life spent as a House of Representatives and Senate staffer, and as a lobbyist and professor, provides remarkable insight into the struggles, the strategies, and the people of the U.S. capital. Learning from History News On Andy McLeod’s Historic Matters podcast, Batten professor Gerry Warburg explores how lessons from the past can inspire the best policymaking for what’s to come. President Ryan Speaks to Batten Students About the Current State of American Higher Education News There’s no denying the state of American higher education is at a crossroads. From front-page news of admissions scandals to politicians promising and demanding free education for all, American colleges and universities are being increasingly scrutinized—and for good reason. The University of Virginia is no exception.