Are Americans less likely to reply to emails from Black people relative to White people?

Although previous attempts have been made to measure everyday discrimination against African Americans, these approaches have been constrained by distinct methodological challenges. We present the results from an audit or correspondence study of a large-scale, nationally representative pool of the American public. We provide evidence that in simple day-to-day interactions, such as sending and responding to emails, the public discriminates against Black people. This discrimination is present among all racial/ethnic groups (aside from among Black people) and all areas of the country. Our results provide a window into the discrimination that Black people in the United States face in day-to-day interactions with their fellow citizens.

Related Content

John Holbein