Published Research

Are Americans less likely to reply to emails from Black people relative to White people?

Authors: John Holbein, Ray Block, Jr., Charles Crabtree, J. Quin Monson

Although previous attempts have been made to measure everyday discrimination against African Americans, these approaches have been constrained by distinct methodological challenges. We present the results from an audit or correspondence study of a large-scale, nationally representative pool of the American public. We provide evidence that in simple day-to-day interactions, such as sending and responding to emails, the public discriminates against Black people. 

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